- Guittone d’Arezzo
- (ca. 1230–1294)Guittone d’Arezzo was the leading figure in the Tuscan school of poetry, the second important poetic movement in vernacular Italian in the Middle Ages. A group of followers calling themselves guittoniani emulated his style and created a thriving poetic tradition to replace the earlier Sicilian school, whose source of inspiration had dissolved as the imperial court at Naples declined. As the most important poet of the immediately preceding generation, Guittone came under harsh criticism from DANTE, who at first followed but later abjured Guittone’s style.The facts we know of Guittone’s life are few.He was born near Arezzo and his father was a public official of some kind. Guittone himself was apparently involved in commercial ventures and did a good deal of traveling. He is also known to have been a member of the Guelf party (the party that initially supported the pope in Italian politics)— he wrote a poem lamenting the 1260 defeat of the Guelfs of Florence at Montaperte.When the Ghibellines (the party that supported the emperor) controlled Arezzo after 1256, Guittone was exiled. His travels throughout Italy, to Bologna, Pisa, and ultimately Florence, put him in touch with powerful people and with other writers. In 1266, apparently after a sincere spiritual crisis, Guittone left his secular life, including his wife and three children, to enter the religious order of the Knights of the Blessed Virgin Mary, known as the merry friars. From this point on, he forsook the COURTLY LOVE poetry of his earlier life, and focused on religious, moral, and political themes. He died in Florence in 1294, in a monastery to which he had donated a large sum of money the previous year on the condition that they would care for him until his death.Dante faulted Guittone for what he called his excessive rhetoric and common language, and claimed that only the ignorant and vulgar were impressed by his poetry. In fact Guittone’s language was filled with a greater number of terms borrowed from Provençal and Latin than that of his forerunners in the Sicilian school.He also used more complex rhetorical figures and sentence structures than his predecessors. Dante at first emulated Guittone’s style, then rejected it in favor of the simpler and clearer manner of the Sicilians. In fact all subsequent Italian poets owed a debt to Guittone: The sophisticated court of Frederick II at Naples was a likely heir to the TROUBADOUR tradition, which flourished in the great courts of southern France. But with a new audience of middle-class citizens of the great Italian cities, Guittone needed to fashion something new. He kept the older forms of the troubadours, but needed to turn away from the values of a landed aristocracy to those of the municipal citizen. His poems extol the virtues of personal energy, self-sufficiency, ambition, merit and the earning of reward. His lyric “Gioia ed allegranza,” for example, ends with the linesBut to suffer, if he has to,to gain by his own worth and manliness—that is a man’s way.And I have a right to saythat by great manlinessI have won something great which so pleases methat any other joy I have isn’t worth a fifthof that which, for this reason, my heart feels.(Goldin 1973, 267, ll. 26–33)In this love poem, the poet sees the achieving of success in love, or any other matter, as dependent on personal energy and hard work. It was this sort of attitude that Dante saw as plebeian, and he sought a new kind of exclusiveness in his own poetic movement, the DOLCE STIL NOVO, or “sweet new style,” which ultimately replaced the Tuscan school of poetry.Guittone was a very prolific writer: 50 of his canzoni are extant, along with some 251 sonnets in addition to other poems. His reputation has been dimmed by Dante’s judgment of him, but a more objective view will admit his important contribution to poetry in the Italian vernacular.Bibliography■ Goldin, Frederick, trans. German and Italian Lyrics of the Middle Ages: An Anthology and a History. New York: Doubleday, 1973.■ Moleta, Vincent. The Early Poetry of Guittone d’Arezzo. London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 1976.
Encyclopedia of medieval literature. 2013.
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Guittone d'Arezzo — (1235 1294) est un poète toscan et une grande figure artistique et morale du XIIIe siècle. Biographie Guittone d Arezzo donne à la poésie toscane parmi ses tout premiers modèles de chansons amoureuses. En 1256, Guittone est exilé d Arezzo en … Wikipédia en Français
Guittone d'Arezzo — (Arezzo, 1235 1294) fue un escritor y poeta italiano, hijo de Viva de Michelle, un partidario apasionado de la facción güelfa, y que luego amargado por fuertes fracasos entró en la orden religiosa de los Cavalieri con la idea de ayudar a la… … Wikipedia Español
GUITTONE D’AREZZO — (1230? 1294) En le critiquant, Dante a paradoxalement reconnu l’importance de cet auteur, parfois considéré comme un poète de transition, qui fait le lien entre la poésie lyrique provençale ou sicilienne, de type aristocratique, et les milieux… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Guittone d'Arezzo — (Arezzo, c.1235 1294) was a Tuscan poet and the founder of the Tuscan School. In 1256, he was exiled from Arezzo due to his Guelf sympathies … Wikipedia
Guittōne d'Arezzo — (spr. gwittōne ), ital. Dichter, geb. um 1230 in Santa Firmina bei Arezzo, gest. 1294 in Florenz, führte in seiner Jugend ein ziemlich freies Leben, trat hierauf in den Orden der Frati gaudenti und widmete sich von da an ganz der Aufgabe, dessen… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Guittone d'Arezzo — Guittone d Arezzo, Fra G., ital. Dichter, geb. um 1230, gest. 1294 zu Florenz, bildete das Sonett aus. »Rime«, hg. von Valeriani (1828), »Lettere« (1745) … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Guittone d'Arezzo — Fra Guittone d Arezzo (* um 1250 in Santa Firmina bei Arezzo; † 1294 in Florenz) war ein italienischer Dichter und Mitglied der Frati gaudenti. Er hatte eine gelehrte Erziehung erhalten und verstand außer dem Lateinischen auch Provenzalisch,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Guittone d’Arezzo — Fra Guittone d’Arezzo (* um 1250 in Santa Firmina bei Arezzo; † 1294 in Florenz) war ein italienischer Dichter und Mitglied der Frati gaudenti. Er hatte eine gelehrte Erziehung erhalten und verstand außer dem Lateinischen auch Provenzalisch,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Guittone d'Arezzo — Guittone d Arẹzzo, genannt Fra Guittone, italienischer Dichter, * Arezzo um 1225, ✝ Florenz um 1294; war Mitglied des Ordens der »Cavalieri di Santa Maria« und bedeutender Prediger. Gilt als der repräsentativste italienische Dichter vor Dante … Universal-Lexikon
Guittone d'Arezzo — ▪ Italian poet born c. 1230, Arezzo, Tuscia [Italy] died 1294, Florence founder of the Tuscan school of courtly poetry. Knowledge of Guittone s life comes mainly from his writings. Born near Arezzo, he travelled for commercial reasons … Universalium